بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ
in the Name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful
السـلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته
اللهم صل على محمد وآل محمد
clause is a bunch of words containing a mainverb. There are two main kinds of clauses
جُمْلَة مُسْتَقِلّةAn independent clause
جُمْلَة غير مُسْتَقِلّةAsubordinate or dependent
An independent clause is a group of wordsthat contains a subject and verb and expresses a complete thought. Anindependent clause is a sentence.
I like to go to the store.
We aregoing to the movies.
The teachers at schools are really nice.
Independent Clause is complete and can stand alone.
Example:Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistryquiz.
The seven coordinating conjunctions used asconnecting words at the beginning of an independent clause are
and, but, for, or, nor, so, andyet
When the second independent clause in asentence begins with a coordinating conjunction, a comma is
needed before the coordinating conjunction
Example:Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz, butit was hard to concentrate because of the noise.
Independent Marker Word
An independent marker word is a connecting word used at the beginning of an independent clause. These words can always begin a sentence that can stand alone. When the second independent clause in a sentence has an independent marker word, a semicolon is needed before the independent marker word.
Example:Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz; however, it was hard to concentrate because of the noise.
Some common independent markers are: also, consequently, furthermore, however, moreover, nevertheless, and therefore
الجُمْلَة غير مُسْتَقِلّة
A dependent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and verb but does not express a complete thought. A dependent clause cannot be a sentence. Often a dependent clause is marked by a dependent marker word.
I like to go
We are going
The teacherat school
Remember that adependent clause always contains a subject and a verb, but it cannot stand byitself.
Example:When Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry .
(What happened when he studied? The thought is incomplete.)
dependent clauses are more complex than independent clauses.
There are three basic kinds of dependent clause
adverb clause, adjective clause, andnoun clause
Adverb clauses provide information about what is going on in the main (independent) clause: where, when, or why
Adverbial clauses start with dependent conjunctions or Dependent Marker Word
in order to
as long as
as soon as
as well as
A dependent marker word is a word added to the beginning of an independent clause that makes it into a dependent clause.
Example:When Jimstudied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz, it was very noisy.
When the movie is over, we'll go downtown
Noun clauses can do anything that nouns cando.
Noun clauses often start with the following:
the fact that
Adjective clauses or
Relative clauses are dependent clauses introduced by a Relative Pronoun (that, which, whichever, who, whoever, whom, whomever, whose, and of which). or a relative adverb [when, where, or why].
Connecting dependent and independent clauses
There aretwo types of words that can be used as connectors at the beginning of an independent clause: coordinating conjunctions and independent marker words.
A comma splice is the use of a comma between two independent clauses. You can usually fix the error by changing the comma to a period and therefore making the two clauses into two separate sentences, by changing the comma to a semicolon, or by making one clause dependent by inserting a dependent marker word in front of it.
Incorrect:I like this class, it is very interesting.
Correct:I like this class. It is very interesting.
.I like this class; it is very interesting
.I like this class, and it is very interesting
.I like this class because it is very interesting
.Because it is very interesting, I like this class
جمع واعداد \ مشرفة اللغات 1
أي سؤال أو استفسار , في خدمتــكم .
دمتم في حفظ الرحمن ورعايتـه .
والسلام عليكم .